?????????????????

????? (SO2)

???????????????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????????????? ??????????????????????????????????????? ????????????????????????

??

?????

?????????

????????

????

???? ?????? ????


??

??????(SO2?????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????? ??????????0.3-1.4 ppm????????????3 ppm????????????????? (Baxter, 2000; Wellburn, 1994)? ?????????????????????????? ???????2?????????(25??1???2.62 g L-1(Lide, 2003))? ????????????????? (25??85 g L-1 (Gangolli, 1999))? ????????????????????(H2SO4)???? ???????????????????????(Komarnisky et al., 2003)?

?????????????????????????10 ppm?????????????????km?????????? ???????????????????????0.00001-0.07 ppm??(Brimblecombe, 1996; Oppenheimer et al., 1998)? ?????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????????????? (Brimblecombe, 1996; Finlayson-Pitts and Pitts, 1986; Porter et al., 2002)?


?????

??????????????????????? ????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????(Baxter, 2000)? 0.2-0.5 ppm?????????????????????? ????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ???(1-5 ppm)????????????????????????????????????? ???????????? ???????????????????????????????????????????? ??????????????????????????????

????????????????????
(Baxter, 2000; Nemery, 2001; NIOSH 1981; Wellburn, 1994)

?????(ppm) ??????
1-5 ???????????????????????????
3-5 ?????????????????????????????
5 ???????????????
6 ?????????????
10 ?????????????
10-15 ??????????????
20+ ?????????????
150 ??????????????????

 

?????????????????????????????????????????????(Ware et al., 1986)? ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????(Uda et al., 1999)?


?????????

1971?????????????????????????????????????????24?????2620µg m-3 (1 ppm) ???????? ????????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????

???????????????????
????????????????????????????????

?/?? ???
(ppm)
???
(µg m-3)
???? ????? ???? ???? ? ??
?????? 1 2620 1??   1973?
4?16?
Ley 20.284   a
0.3 780 8??   1973?
4?16?
Ley 20.284   a
(0.027) 70 1??   1973?
4?16?
Ley 20.284   a
?? 0.096 250 24 ?? Primary 2003?
3?6?
D.S. Nº 113/02 1 b
0.031 80 1? Primary 2003?
3?6?
D.S. Nº 113/02 1 b
?? (0.057),
(0.191),
(0.267)
150 (i),
500 (ii),
700 (iii)
1??   1996?
1?
GB 3095-1996 2 a
0.019),
(0.057),
(0.095)
50 (i),
150 (ii),
250 (iii)
24??   1996?
1?
GB 3095-1996 2 a
(0.008),
(0.023),
(0.038)
20 (i),
60 (ii),
100 (iii)
1?   1996?
1?
GB 3095-1996 2 a
????? (0.573) 1500 3?? ?2???????? 1982?
1?11?
Decreto No. 2   a
(0.153) 400 24?? ?2???????? 1982?
1?11?
Decreto No. 2   a
(0.038) 100 1?   1982?
1?11?
Decreto No. 2   a
????? (0.573) 1500 3?? ?2????????   Reglamento sobre
inmisión de contaminantes atmosféricos
  a
(0.139) 365 24?? ?2????????   Reglamento sobre
inmisión de contaminantes atmosféricos
  a
(0.031) 80 1?     Reglamento sobre
inmisión de contaminantes atmosféricos
  a
????? (0.573) 1500 3?? ?2???????? 1991?
7?15?
Registro Oficial No. 726   a
(0.153) 400 24?? ?2???????? 1991?
7?15?
Registro Oficial No. 726   a
(0.031) 80 1?   1991?
7?15?
Registro Oficial No. 726   a
??????? (0.134) 350 1?? ?25???????? 2005?
1?1?
COUNCIL DIRECTIVE 1999/30/EC 3 c
(0.048) 125 24?? ?4???????? 2005?
1?1?
COUNCIL DIRECTIVE 1999/30/EC 3 c
(0.008) 20 1?   2001?
7?19?
COUNCIL DIRECTIVE 1999/30/EC 3 c
?? 0.1 260 1??   1973?
5?16?
    d
0.04 110 24??   1973?
5?16?
    d
???? (0.130) 341 24?? ?2???????? 1994?
12?23?
NOM-022-
SSA1-1993
  a
(0.030) 79 1?   1994?
12?23?
    a
???????? (0.134) 350 1??   2002?
5?
  4 e
(0.046) 120 24??   2002?
5?
  4 e
?? (0.102) 266 15? ?36???????? 2004?
12?31?
The Air Quality (England) Regulations 2000   f
(0.134) 350 1?? ?25???????? 2004?
12?31?
The Air Quality (England) Regulations 2000   f
(0.048) 125 24?? ?4???????? 2004?
12?31?
The Air Quality (England) Regulations 2000   f
?? 0.14 365 24?? Primary 1990? NAAQS   g
0.50 1300 3?? Secondary 1990? NAAQS   g
0.030 80 1? Primary 1990? NAAQS   g
?????? 0.175 500 10?   2000? WHO 2000 5 h
(0.048) 125 24??   2000? WHO 2000   h
(0.019) 50 1?   2000? WHO 2000   h
  1. ?????????(1 atm.)???25?????
  2. (i) ????????????; (ii) ?????????????? (iii) ???????
  3. 20??1013hPa?????
  4. 0??1????????????????????
  5. ????????????
  1. http://www.cepis.ops-oms.org/bvsci/e/fulltext/normas/normas.html
  2. http://www.conama.cl/portal/1255/propertyvalue-10316.html
  3. European Commission Guidelines Website
  4. http://www.env.go.jp/en/lar/regulation/aq.html
  5. http://www.mfe.govt.nz/publications/air/ambient-air-quality-may02/index.html
  6. http://www.defra.gov.uk/environment/airquality/airqual/index.htm
  7. http://www.epa.gov/air/criteria.html
  8. WHO, 2000. Guidelines for Air Quality, World Health Organisation, Geneva.

 

????????????

?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ??????????(???????????????????????????????????? ????????????????????10????????)??1???????? ???????????????????????????????????

????????????????????????

???? ?? (ppm) ?? (ppm)
10-15? 0.102 0.175
1?? 0.057 1
24?? 0.019 0.153
1? 0.008 0.038

 


??????????????
????????????????????????????????

?/?? ???
(ppm)
???
(µg m-3)
???? ????? ???? ???? ? ??
?? 5 13000 15? MEL       a
2 5300 8?? TWA MEL       a
?? 5 13000 15? STEL 1994? NIOSH/ ACGIH 2 c
5 13000 8?? TWA PEL   OSHA Regulations (Standards - 29 CFR) 1 b
2 5000 8?? TWA   1994? NIOSH/ ACGIH 2 c
0.3 (800) 1?? ERPG-1 1989? Emergency Response Planning Guideline   d
3 (7900) 1?? ERPG-2 1989? Emergency Response Planning Guideline   d
15 (39300) 1?? ERPG-3 1989? Emergency Response Planning Guideline   d
  1. 25??760mmHG????ppm?
  2. http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/nmam/
  1. HSE, 2002. Occupational Exposure Limits 2002. HSE Books, Sudbury.
  2. OSHA Guidelines Website
  3. NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods (NMAM), 1994, Cassinelli, M.E. and O'Connor, P.F. (Eds.). DHHS (NIOSH) Publication 94-113, 4th ed. and/or http://www.osha.gov/dts/chemicalsampling/data/CH_268500.html
  4. AIHA Emergency Response Planning Guidelines Committee, 2002. Emergency Response Planning Guidelines 2002 Complete Set, American Industrial Hygiene Association, Fairfax.

????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????0.2 ppm??????? ????????5.0 ppm??????????????????????????? ???????1990???????????????????????5ppm????????????? (Ng'Walali et al., 1999)? ???????????USGS????????????? ????????????????????????????????????2000?????????????

??????????????????????????????

 


????????

??????????????(SO2) ???????????????????? ??????????????????????????????????????????????????

  • ?????????: 1996??????????????????????????????????????????????4.0 ppm (BGVN 21:01)????????? ???????3??????????????10????????? 1987???2001?????????????????????????????? ???24?????????85??????????(Elias, 2002)? ????????????????????????????????????????????? ????????
  • ?????????: ????????????????? 1998??3???4??1999??2???3????? ??44km??????????????????????????0.002????0.23 ppm (?5-600 ?g m-3) ?????????(Delmelle et al., 2002)? ????????30??????????WHO)?24???????????????????????? 14km?????????????????????????0.6 ppm???(Horrocks, 2001)? 2001?5????????????????????????????????????? 3.1 ppm (7950 ?g m-3)???(Allen et al., 2002)? ????????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????????? ?????????5??????????????????????????????????????????????????
  • ?????????: ??????????????????????????????? ????????????????????????????????0.28 ppm (730 ?g m-3)??????? ?????????0.3-0.5 ppm???????(Nicholson et al., 1996)? 1991??1992????????????????WHO?24??????????????????? 15?????????????? ??????????????????????????35ppm???? ???????????????????????????
  • ????????: ??????????????????2ppm?NIOSH??????????????????? ????????????????(J. Witter pers. comm.)? ???????????????1???100?????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????
  • ??????????????????: ???????????????????????????????????????? ??????20????????6ppm??-75ppm??????????????????(Durand et al., 2004)? ?????????????????????15?????????

???????????????????????????????????????????????????

  • ??????????????: 1976???????????????????????????????(LeGuern et al., 1980)?
  • ????????????: ???????????????????????????????????????????? ????????0.08ppm (160 ?g m-3)??????????? (Raga et al., 1999). ???????????????????4???????? ????24???????????????????????????????
  • ?????: ?????????????????????????????????????????? 1980?????????????5km???????????1??????????? 0.84 ppm?????????????????????(Yano et al., 1986)? 1985??9???1986??2?????????????????????????? 0.015ppm??0.138ppm???????????????0.079ppm???(Kawaratani and Fujita, 1990)? ??????????????????????? ????????????????????????????????????????? (Shinkuro et al., 1999; Wakisaka et al., 1988).
  • ??????: 2000??????????????????????????????????????? 100-400 km ???????????????????????????????? (e.g. Naoe et al., 2003). 88 km?????????????????????????????0.0028 ppm???????? ?0.114 ppm?????(An et al., 2003)? ??4.5 km?????????1??????0.945 ppm???? ????????????????9?????? ??????3000????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????(Fujita et al., 2003)? 2000??8???11???????????623???????????????????? 1?????????????(Fujita et al., 2003).

????????????????????????:

  • ?????????????: 1986????1993????????????????????8?10km????????????? ??????????????????????(SEAN 11:05; BGVN 18:03)?
  • ?????????: 1991?10?????????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????(BGVN 16:09)? (???????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????????????
  • ???????????????: 1976?2?1????????????????????10ppm??????? ????????????????????????????????????????? ??10km??1ppm???????????????????(Stith et al., 1978)?
  • ????????: ???????????????????????????????? 1988?9???????????????3ppm?9ppm?????(SEAN 13:12)? ??????????????????????
  • ????????????: 1997?2?????????????????3.8 ppm (10,000 ?g m-3)??????? ????NOISH??????????2???(Goff et al., 1998)?
  • ?????????: 1984?3???6????????????????????????????? ???????????????????? ?????????????????(BGVN 19:07)?
  • ?????????: 1911???????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????(Baxter 1990)?

?????????????????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????????????????????? 0.115ppm?????????? ???????????????????????????????????? 1?????????????????????????? ?????1??????24???????????????????? ?????????????????0.070-0.085 ppm?????????????????????Baxter et al., 1999)? ??????1??????????????

??????????????????????????????????????????????(???)? ???????15?????????7???????? 1980?1???1995?10?????????????????59????????????? ????????????????????? ??????????????????????????????????? ??????????????????????????????????????????????????? (Ng'Walali et al., 1999).

20??????????????????????????????
(BGVN 16:09; Hayakawa, 1999; Ng'Walali et al., 1999????)

?? ?? ???/
????
??
????? 1989?2?12? ??1? 66???????
????? 1990?3?26? ??1? ???
????? 1990?4?18? ??1? 78??????
????? 1990?10?19? ??1? 54??????
??????? 1991?10?11? ??????????????????????? 1???????????
????????? 1993? ??1? ?????????????????????????????????????
????? 1994?5?29? ??1? 69??????
????? 1997?11?23? ??2? 62??51?????????????????????5ppm???????


????

Allen, A.G., Oppenheimer, C., Ferm, M., Baxter, P.J., Horrocks, L.A., Galle, B., McGonigle, A.J.S. and Duffell, H.J., 2002. Primary sulfate aerosol and associated emissions from Masaya Volcano, Nicaragua. Journal of Geophysical Research, 107(D23).

An, J., Ueda, H., Matsuda, K., Hasome, H. and Iwata, M., 2003. Simulated impacts of SO2 emissions from the Miyake volcano on concentration and deposition of sulfur oxides in September and October of 2000. Atmospheric Environment, 37(22): 3039-3046.

Baxter, P.J., 1990. Medical effects of volcanic eruptions. Bulletin of Volcanology, 52(7): 532-544.

Baxter, P.J., 2000. Gases. In: P.J. Baxter, P.H. Adams, T.-C. Aw, A. Cockcroft and J.M.

Elias, T., Sutton, A.J., 2002, Volcanic air pollution in our backyard: gas advisory system helps alert people of Hawai`i, Geological Society of America Abstracts with Program, 34 (5): A-11.

Harrington (Editors), Hunter's Diseases of Occupations. Arnold, London, pp. 123-178.

Baxter, P.J., Baubron, J.-C. and Coutinho, R., 1999. Health hazards and disaster potential of ground gas emissions at Furnas volcano, Sao Miguel, Azores. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 92(1-2): 95-106.

Brimblecombe, P., 1996. Air Composition and Chemistry. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Delmelle, P., Stix, J., Baxter, P.J., Garcia-Alvarez, J. and Barquero, J., 2002. Atmospheric dispersion, environmental effects and potential health hazard associated with the low-altitude gas plume of Masaya volcano, Nicaragua. Bulletin of Volcanology, 64(6): 423-434.

Durand, M., Florkowski, C., George, P. and Walmsley, T., 2004. Elevated trace element output in urine following acute volcanic gas exposure. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 134: 139-148.

Finlayson-Pitts, B.J. and Pitts, J.N., 1986. Atmospheric Chemistry: Fundamentals and Experimental Techniques. Wiley-Interscience Publication. New York.

Fujita, S.-I., Sakurai, T. and Matsuda, K., 2003. Wet and dry deposition of sulfur associated with the eruption of Miyakejima volcano, Japan. Journal of Geophysical Research, 108(D15): DOI: 10.1029/2002JD003064.

Gangolli, S. (Ed.), 1999. The Dictionary of Substances and their Effects, 2nd edn. The Royal Society of Chemistry. Cambridge.

Goff, F., Janik, C.J., Delgado, H., Werner, C., Counce, D., Stimac, J.A., Siebe, C., Love, S.P., Williams, S.N., Fischer, T. and Johnson, L., 1998. Geochemical surveillance of magmatic volatiles at Popocatpetl Volcano, Mexico. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 110(6): 695-710.

Hayakawa, Y., 1999. Catalog of volcanic eruptions during the past 2000 years in Japan. Journal of Geography, 108(4): 472-488.

Jacobson, M.Z., 2002. Atmospheric pollution: history, science and regulation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 399 pp.

Kawaratani, R.K. and Fujita, S.-I., 1990. Wet deposition of volcanic gases and ash in the vicinity of Mount Sakurajima. Atmospheric Environment, 24A(6): 1487-1492.

Komarnisky, L.A., Christopherson, R.J. and Basu, T.K., 2003. Sulfur: its clinical and toxilogical aspects. Nutrition, 19(1): 54-61.

Le Guern, F., Bernard, A. and Chevrier, R.M., 1980. Soufriere of Guadeloupe 1976-1977 eruption - mass and energy transfer and volcanic health hazards. Bulletin of Volcanology, 43(3): 577-593.

Lide, D.R. (Ed.), 2003. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th edn. CRC Press. Boca Raton, Florida.

Naoe, H., Heintzenberg, J., Okada, K., Zaizen, Y., Hayashi, K., Tateishi, T., Igarashi, Y., Dokiya, Y. and Kinoshita, K., 2003. Composition and size distribution of submicrometer aerosol particles observed on Mt. Fuji in the volcanic plumes from Miyakejima. Atmospheric Environment, 37(22): 3047-3055.

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 1981. Occupational Health Guidelines for Chemical Hazards, DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 81-123. http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/81-123.html.

Nemery, B., Hoet, P.H.M. and Nemmar, A., 2001. The Meuse Valley fog of 1930: an air pollution disaster. The Lancet 357(9257), 704-708.

Ng'Walali, P.M., Koreeda, A., Kibayashi, K. and Tsunenari, S., 1999. Fatalities by inhalation of volcanic gas at Mt. Aso crater in Kumamoto, Japan. Legal Medicine, 1: 180-184.

Nicholson, R.A., Roberts, P.D. and Baxter, P.J., 1996. Preliminary studies of acid and gas contamination at Poas volcano, Costa Rica. In: J.D. Appleton, R. Fuge and G.J.H. McCall (Editors), Environmental Geochemistry and Health. The Geological Society, London, pp. 239-244.

Oppenheimer, C., Francis, P., Burton, M., Maciejewski, A.J.H. and Boardman, L., 1998. Remote measurement of volcanic gases by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Applied Physics B, 67: 505-515.

Porter, J.N., Horton, K.A., Mouginis-Mark, P.J., Lienert, B., Sharma, S.K., Lau, E., Sutton, A.J., Elias, T. and Oppenheimer, C., 2002. Sun photometer and lidar measurements of the plume from the Hawaii Kilauea volcano Pu'u O'o vent: aerosol flux and SO2 lifetime. Geophysical Research Letters 29(16), DOI 10.1029/2002GL014744.

Raga, G.B., Kok, G.L., Baumgardner, D., Baez, A. and Rosas, I., 1999. Evidence for volcanic influence on Mexico City aerosols. Geophysical Research Letters, 26(8): 1149-1152.

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Stith, J.L., Hobbs, P.V. and Radke, L.F., 1978. Airborne particle and gas measurements in the emissions from six volcanoes. Journal of Geophysical Research, 83(C8): 4009-4017.

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Download our pamphlets on preparing for ashfall and on the health hazards of ash. They are designed for mass distribution at the onset of new eruptions. They are now avaiable in English, Japanese, French Spanish, Portuguese, Swahili, Indonesian and Icelandic with Italian versions being available shortly. Please see our Pamphlets page for further infomation.

 

  

 

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IVHHN has an article under the Guidelines tab which used to be called 'Recommended Face Masks'. This has now been updated to 'Information on face masks' and is an interim page whilst the Health Interventions in Volcanic Eruptions project investigates which types of respiratory protection are effective in protecting the general population from volcanic ash inhalation. Please note that the translations in Spanish, Japanese and Portuguese have not yet been updated.

 

 

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