?????????????????

????(H2S)

 

??

?????

?????????

????????

????

???? ?????? ????


??

????(H2S)??????????????????????????? H2S????????0.008pp???0.2 ppm?????????????????????????? (Amoore, 1983; Beauchamp 1984). ?????4?46????????????????(Sax and Lewis, 1989)? ????????????? ?????????????4.1 g L-1 at 20?(Gangolli, 1999)?? ????25??1???1.39 g L-1????????1.2???(Lide, 2003)? ??????????H2S???????????0.1-0.5 ppm??? ???????????????0.00005-0.024 ppm????? ???????????????24????(Brimblecombe, 1996; Oppenheimer et al., 1998)?


?????

????(H2S)????????? ???????????????????????????? ??????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????(Sax and Lewis, 1989)? ????????????H2S?????????????? ??????????????????????????????(Bates et al., 2002; Legator, 2001)? H2S????????????????? ??????SO2????????????????H2S ?????????????????? ????????H2S?????????????? ??????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????????????????????? ????????????????????????????????????????????????????(Snyder et al., 1995)? ???????????????????????????

??????????????????????
(Amoore, 1983; Baxter, 2000; Faivre-Pierret and Le Guern, 1983 and references therein; NIOSH, 1981; Sax and Lewis, 1989; Snyder et al., 1995).

????(ppm) ??????
0.008-0.2 “????” ??????????????
20 ????????????????? ??????????????????
20-50 ?????
50 ???????????????????????????
60 ???????????????????????????
150+ ???????? ?????
250 ???????????
500 ??????????????????
1000 ?????????
1000-2000 ????: ???????????????????????? ????????????????????????
2000+ ???????????????


?????????

??????????H2S??????????????????? ??????????????H2S????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????

H2S??????????????

?/?? ??? ppm ??? µg m-3 ???? ????? ???? ???? ? ??
????????   7 1??   2002?5?   1 a
WHO   150 24??   1997? WHO 1997 2 b
??????? 0.025 35 1?? State standard       c
??????????? 0.03   1?? State 1969?; 1984???     d
  1. 0??1?????????????????????????????????????
  2. ???????????
  1. http://www.mfe.govt.nz/publications/air/ambient-air-quality-may02/index.html
  2. WHO, 2000. Guidelines for Air Quality, World Health Organisation, Geneva.
  3. State of Hawaii, 2002. 2001 Annual Summary Hawaii Air Quality Data, Department of Health Clean Air Branch, Honolulu, Hawaii.
  4. http://www.arb.ca.gov/research/aaqs/caaqs/h2s/h2s.htm

 

H2S????????????

?/?? ??? ppm ??? µg m-3 ???? ????? ???? ???? ? ??
?? 10 14000 15? MEL   New   a
5 7000 8?? TWA MEL   New   a
?? 20   8?? TWA ?????????   OSHA Regulations (Standards - 29 CFR) 1 b
10 15000 10? ceiling REL 2003 NIOSH   c
0.1   1?? ERPG-1 2003 Emergency Response Planning Guideline   d
30   1?? ERPG-2 2003 Emergency Response Planning Guideline   d
100   1?? ERPG-3 2003 Emergency Response Planning Guideline   d
  1. 25??760mmHg????????ppm. ?????????????? 50ppm?????8???1??10?????????
  1. HSE, 2002. Occupational Exposure Limits 2002. HSE Books, Sudbury.
  2. OSHA Standards Website
  3. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards (NPG).http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npg/npg.html
  4. AIHA Emergency Response Planning Guidelines Committee, 2004. 2004 Emergency Response Planning Guidelines (ERPG) Update Set, American Industrial Hygiene Association, Fairfax.


????????

????(H2S)?????????????????????????????????????(Baxter, 2000)? ????????????????????????????????H2S????????????? ????H2S????????????????????????

  • ??????????????: 1976-1977?????????????????????????3?4km???????????????? ?????????? H2S????????????????74 ppm (100,000 ?g m-3)? ??????????0.2???0.37 ppm(300 ?? 500 ?g m-3) ??????? ???????????????????????????????(Le Guern et al., 1980)?
  • ?????????: ??????????????????????????????????????? 1994??0.3ppm?4.2ppm??????(Sutton et al., 1994)? 2003?7?23????0.2ppm??0.7ppm?(C. Witham, ??????)????????? ?????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????????? ??????????????
  • ????????????????: ??????????????????(10-15 ppm)???????? ??????????????????40ppm?????????????????????? (Carapezza et al., 2003)?
  • ?????????????: ??????H2S??????????????? ????????????????????????????? ?0.143 ppm (200 ?g m-3)??????????????? ??????1ppm(1500 ?g m-3)??? ??????????????????????????????????????? ??????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????????????????? (Bates et al., 2002)? ?????????????????????????????? ??????????????????????>200 ppm??????? ?????????0.3-20 ppm???????(Durand and Scott, 2003)?

???????????H2S??????????????????????????????????? ??100??????????????????????46????????

20????????H2S?????????????????
(Hayakawa, 1999; Durand sourced in Collins, 2003????).

??/
????
?? ???/
????
??
????? 1919?7?6? ??2?  
????? 1921?11?26? ??1?  
?????????
????
1946 ??1? ?????
?????????
????
1948? ??1?
??1?
??????
????? 1951?11?5? ??2? ????
????? 1952?3?27? ??1? ????
?????????
????
1954?2? ??1?
??4?
????????
?????????
????
Feb 1954 ??1? ????????????
?????????
????
1954?6? ??1? ??????????
????? 1954?7?21? ??1? ????
????? 1958?7?21? ??2?  
?????????
????
1962?2? ??2? ????????????????????????
?????????
????
1962?5? ??1? ??
????? 1967?4?23? ??1?  
????? 1967?11?4? ??2? ?????
????? 1969?8?26? ??1? ????
????? 1970?4?30? ??1? ????
??????? 1971?12?27? ??6? ?????
????? 1972?10?2? ??2?  
????? 1972?11?25? ??1? ?????
????? 1975?8?12? ??1?  
??????? 1976?8?3? ??3? ???
????? 1985?7?22? ??1?  
??????? 1986?5?8? ??1?  
?????????
????
1987?9? ??2? ???????????????????????????
????? 1989?8?26? ??2? ????
??????? 1997?9?15? ??4? ???
?????????
????
2000?2?19? ??1? H2S??????


????

American Industrial Hygiene Association, 1962. Hydrogen Sulfide. Hygienic Guide Series. Detroit, Michigan.

Amoore, J.E. and Hautala, E., 1983. Odor as an aid to chemical safety: odor thresholds compared with threshold limit values and volatilities for 214 industrial chemicals in air and water dilution. Journal of Applied Toxicology 3, 272-290.

Bates, M.N., Garrett, N. and Shoemack, P., 2002. Investigation of health effects of hydrogen sulfide from a geothermal source. Archives of Environmental Health, 57(5): 405-411.

Baxter, P.J., 2000. Gases. In: P.J. Baxter, P.H. Adams, T.-C. Aw, A. Cockcroft and J.M. Harrington (Editors), Hunter's Diseases of Occupations. Arnold, London, pp. 123-178.

Beauchamp, R.O.J., Bus, J.S., Popp, J.A., Boreiko, C.J. and Andjelkovich, D.A., 1984. A critical review of the literature on hydrogen sulfide toxicity. Critical Reviews in Toxicology 13: 25-97.

Brimblecombe, P., 1996. Air Composition and Chemistry. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Carapezza, M.L., Badalamenti, B., Cavarra, L. and Scalzo, A., 2003. Gas hazard assessment in a densely inhabited area of Colli Albani Volcano (Cava dei Selci, Roma). Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 123: 81-94.

Collins, S., 2003, Sulphur City goes under scrutiny, The New Zealand Herald, 9 July 2003, Clickfor article.

Durand, M. and Scott, B.J., 2003. An investigation of geothermal soil gas emissions and indoor air pollution in selected Rotorua buildings, Institute of Geological & Nuclear Sciences Science Report 2003/28.

Faive-Pierret, R. and Le Guern, F., 1983. Health risks linked with inhalation of volcanic gases and aerosols. In: H. Tazieff and J.C. Sabroux (Editors), Forecasting Volcanic Events. Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., Amsterdam, pp. 69-81.

Gangolli, S. (Ed.), 1999. The Dictionary of Substances and their Effects, 2nd edn. The Royal Society of Chemistry. Cambridge.

Hayakawa, Y., 1999. Catalog of volcanic eruptions during the past 2000 years in Japan. Journal of Geography, 108(4): 472-488.

Legator, M.S., 2001. Health effects from chronic low-level exposure to hydrogen sulfide. Archives of Environmental Health, 56: 123-131.

Le Guern, F., Bernard, A. and Chevrier, R.M., 1980. Soufriere of Guadeloupe 1976-1977 eruption - mass and energy transfer and volcanic health hazards. Bulletin of Volcanology, 43(3): 577-593.

Lide, D.R. (Ed.), 2003. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th edn. CRC Press. Boca Raton, Florida.

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 1981. Occupational Health Guidelines for Chemical Hazards, DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 81-123. http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/81-123.html.

Oppenheimer, C., Francis, P., Burton, M., Maciejewski, A.J.H. and Boardman, L., 1998. Remote measurement of volcanic gases by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Applied Physics B, 67: 505-515.

Sax, N.I. and Lewis, R.J., Sr., 1989. Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials, 7th edn. Van Nostrand Reinhold. New York.

Snyder, J.W., Safir, E.F., Summerville, G.P. and Middleberg, R.A., 1995. Occupational fatality and persistent neurological sequelae after mass exposure to hydrogen sulfide. American Journal of Emergency Medicine, 13(2): 199-203.

Sutton, A.J., Elias, T., Navarrete, R., 1994, Volcanic gas emissions and their impact on ambient air character at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 94-569, 34 p.

 

 

 
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