?????????????????

?????(CO2)

 

??

?????

?????????

????????

????

???? ?????? ????


??

?????(CO2)???????????? ???????????????(Sax and Lewis, 1989)? CO2?????1.5????????? ?25??1??????????1.80 g L-1 (Lide, 2003)?? ????????????????????????????????????? ??????????CO2???????? 1ppm???????????????????360ppm??????ppm??????????? (T. Elias pers. comm.; Oppenheimer et al., 1998)? ???????????????????4???(Brimblecombe, 1996)?

CO2???????????????CO2????????????????????????????? (1% = 10,000 ppmv)??????????????????????


?????

?????(CO2)??????????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????? ????????????????????????????

????????????????????
(Baxter, 2000; Faivre-Pierret and Le Guern,1983 and refs therein; NIOSH, 1981).

????
(% in air)
??????
2-3 ??????????????????????????????
3 ???????????????????
3-5 ?????????????????????????????
5 ?????????????????????????????????
7.5 ??????????????????????????????????????????
8-15 ?????????????????????????????????????
10 ????????10???15????????????????
15 ???????????????????????
25+ ???????????????????????????????????????


?????????

????????????CO2?????????????????????????????? ?????????????1.5????????????????????????????????????????????? ????????????CO2????????????CO2???????????????????

CO2?????
(1%??? = 10000 ppm)

?/?? ??? % ??? mg m-3 ???? ????? ???? ???? ? ??
??????? 0.5 9000 8?? TWA OEL   Commission Directive 91/322   a
?? 1.5 274000 15? MEL   ILV   b
0.5 9150 8?? TWA MEL   ILV   b
?? 3 540000 15? STEL 2003 NIOSH   c
>0.5 9000 8?? TWA PEL   OSHA Regulations (Standards - 29 CFR) 1 d
0.5 9000 10?? TWA REL 2003 NIOSH   c
    • 25??760mmHg??????ppm
  1. http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/health_safety/docs/oels_en.pdf
  2. HSE, 2002. Occupational Exposure Limits 2002. HSE Books, Sudbury.
  3. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards (NPG). http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npg/npg.html
  4. OSHA Standards Website


????????

??????????????????????????? (CO2)????? ?????????????????????????????????????????????? ????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ???????Le Guern et al., (1982)?????????????????????????????????? CO2?????????????? ?1973?????????????????????????????????????????? ????????????????????????????????????????? CO2 ????????????????3??????? ??????????????????????????????????????????? 2?????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????1979????????? ??????????????????CO2??????????? ???????CO2???????????????????????142???????? ????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????98-99%?CO2???????? (Le Guern et al., 1982)? ????????????1906?4?18??????CO2?????????????? ?????????? Perret (1924)???????????CO2????"??????????"?????? ??????????????????? ?????????????????????19???????????????? 1986????????????????????????????????????????????? ????????????????????????????CO2??????????? (Smithsonian Institution, 1986)? ?????????CO2??????????????????????? ???????????????????????(Le Guern et al., 1982)?

CO2????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????

  • ???????????????: 2002????????????????CO2???? 20-30%?????????????90????????? ?????CO2????????????? "????"?????????????????????? ??40m???????????????????? ??????????????????CO2????????????? ????????????????????(Baxter and Ancia, 2002)?
  • ?????????: 1980???CO2??????????????????????????? ??2?????????? (Baubron et al., 1990)? 1988???????????????????CO2????????? ??????????????????????????????????? ????????100?????????????? ??????????????????????????????????????? ????????????????????

?????CO2??????? ???????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????

  • ????????: ????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????(Farrar et al., 1995; Sorey et al., 1998)? 1988??????????????????????????????????? ???????????????(Hill, 2000)? ????????2?????????????CO2???70????? ???????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????(Farrar et al., 1995)?
  • ??????????? ??????????????????CO2??????????? ????TWA????????????????????????????????? ??????????????????????? ??????????????????????????????????CO2???? 0.5??????(USGS, Hawaiian Volcano Observatory, unpublished data)?
  • ??????????: ???????????????????CO2?????? ???????????(<1.5%)??100????????? ????????????????????????? 1993??CO2????????????????????????? ???????????????????? ???????????????CO2?????????? ????????????????????CO2????? ???????????????????????????????(Baxter et al., 1999)?
  • ?????????????: ????????????????????????????????CO2????????? ??????????????????????????????????????????15?????? (Durand and Scott, 2003)?
  • ???????????????: CO2?????????20?????????????????????? ?????10???????????????????(Beaubien et al., 2003)? 1999?9????????????????29?????CO2???????????? ??????????????????????????????????????? (Beaubien et al., 2003, Carapezza et al., 2003). ??????????????????????????????1.5m?????CO2??? ???????0.5%?????????????????? ??0.75m???0.3-0.5%?????????(Carapezza et al., 2003)? ??????????????????????????

 

?????CO2?????????????????

?? ?? ???/???? ?? ??
????? 1906?4?18? ??1? ????????????????????????????????? Perret, 1924
??????(???) 1948?? ??1? ???????2m?????????????????? Le Guern et al. (1982)
???????????????????????? 1973?1?23? ??1? ???CO2???????5200-5300???? Thorarinsson, 1979
??????????? 20 Feb 1979?2?20? ???149?
??1000?
??????????????? Cronin et al., 2002; SEAN 04:02
??????????? 1984?8?16? ??37?
??1?
??????????????? Sigurdsson et al., 1987
?????????? 1986?8?21? ??1746?
??845???
?????????????4430???? Othman-Chande, 1987
????????? 1980?? ??2? 2????? Baubron et al., 1990
???????? 1990?3? ??1? ???????????????CO2?????????????????? Sorey et al., 1998
?????????????? 1990?6?24? ??6? (????) Itikarai and Stewart, 1993
?????? 1997?7?12? ??3???????? ??????????? (????) Hayakawa, 1999
???????? 1998?5?24? ??1? ??????????????????? Hill, 2000
??????????????? 2000?12? ??1? ??????????????CO2???????? Beaubien et al., 2003; Carapezza et al., 2003
??????????????? 2002?1? ??2? ???????????CO2????????????2???? BGVN 27:04


????

Baubron, J.C., Allard, P. and Toutain, J.P., 1990. Diffuse volcanic emissions of carbon dioxide from Vulcano Island, Italy. Nature, 344: 51-53.

Baxter, P.J., 2000. Gases. In: P.J. Baxter, P.H. Adams, T.-C. Aw, A. Cockcroft and J.M. Harrington (Editors), Hunter's Diseases of Occupations. Arnold, London, pp. 123-178.

Baxter, P.J. and Ancia, A., 2002. Human health and vulnerability in the Nyiragongo volcano crisis Democratic Republic of Congo 2002: Final Report to the World Health Organisation, World Health Organisation.

 

Baxter, P.J., Baubron, J.-C. and Coutinho, R., 1999. Health hazards and disaster potential of ground gas emissions at Furnas volcano, Sao Miguel, Azores. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 92(1-2): 95-106.

Beaubien, S.E., Ciotoli, G. and Lombardi, S., 2003. Carbon dioxide and radon gas hazard in the Alban Hills area (central Italy). Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 123(1-2): 63-80.

Brimblecombe, P., 1996. Air Composition and Chemistry. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Carapezza, M.L., Badalamenti, B., Cavarra, L. and Scalzo, A., 2003. Gas hazard assessment in a densely inhabited area of Colli Albani Volcano (Cava dei Selci, Roma). Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 123(1-2): 81-94.

Cronin, S.J. and Sharp, D.S., 2002. Environmental impacts on health from continuous volcanic activity at Yasur (Tanna) and Ambrym, Vanuatu. International Journal of Environmental Health Research, 12: 109-123.

Durand, M. and Scott, B.J., 2003. An investigation of geothermal soil gas emissions and indoor air pollution in selected Rotorua buildings, Institute of Geological & Nuclear Sciences Science Report 2003/28.

Faive-Pierret, R. and Le Guern, F., 1983. Health risks linked with inhalation of volcanic gases and aerosols. In: H. Tazieff and J.C. Sabroux (Editors), Forecasting Volcanic Events. Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., Amsterdam, pp. 69-81.

Farrar, C.D., Sorey, M.L., Evans, W.C., Howle, J.F., Kerr, B.D., Kennedy, B.M., King, C.-Y. and Southon, J.R., 1995. Forest-killing diffuse CO2 emission at Mammoth Mountain as a sign of magmatic unrest. Nature, 376: 675-678.

Hayakawa, Y., 1999. Catalog of volcanic eruptions during the past 2000 years in Japan. Journal of Geography, 108(4): 472-488.

Hill, P.M., 2000. Possible asphyxiation from carbon dioxide of a cross-country skier in eastern California: a deadly volcanic hazard. Wilderness and Environmental Medicine, 11: 192-195.

Itikarai, I. and Stewart, R., 1993, Rabual: in Annual report of the world volcanic eruptions, in 1990, Bulletin of Volcanic Eruptions (BVE). 30: 103-104.

Le Guern, F., Tazieff, H. and Faivre-Pierret, R., 1982. An example of health hazard: people killed by gas during a phreatic eruption: Dieng Plateau (Java, Indonesia), February 20th 1979. Bulletin Volcanologique, 45(2): 153-156.

Lide, D.R. (Ed.), 2003. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th edn. CRC Press. Boca Raton, Florida.

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 1981. Occupational Health Guidelines for Chemical Hazards, DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 81-123. http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/81-123.html.

Oppenheimer, C., Francis, P., Burton, M., Maciejewski, A.J.H. and Boardman, L., 1998. Remote measurement of volcanic gases by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Applied Physics B, 67: 505-515.

Othman-Chande, M., 1987. The Cameroon volcanic gas disaster: An analysis of a makeshift response. Disasters, 11(2): 96-101.
Perret, F.A., 1924. The Vesuvius eruption of 1906: study of a volcanic cycle. The Carnegie Institution of Washington, 151 pp.

Sax, N.I. and Lewis, R.J., Sr., 1989. Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials, 7th edn. Van Nostrand Reinhold. New York.

Sigurdsson, H., Devine, J.D., Tchoua, F.M., Presser, T.S., Pringle, M.K.W. and Evans, W.C., 1987. Origin of the lethal gas burst from Lake Monoun, Cameroun. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 31(1-2): 1-16.

Smithsonian Institution, 1979. Dieng Volcanic Complex. Scientific Event Alert Network (SEAN) Bulletin, vol. 4, no. 2.

Smithsonian Institution, 1986. Concepcion. Scientific Event Alert Network (SEAN) Bulletin v. 11, no. 5.

Smithsonian Institution, 2002. Nyiragongo. Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network (BGVN), v. 27, no. 4.

Sorey, M.L., Evans, W.C., Kennedy, B.M., Farrar, C.D., Hainsworth, L.J. and Hausback, B., 1998. Carbon dioxide and helium emissions from a reservoir of magmatic gas beneath Mammoth Mountain, California. Journal of Geophysical Research, 103(B7): 15,303-15,323.

Thorarinsson, S., 1979. On the damage caused by volcanic eruptions with special reference to tephra and gases. In: P.D. Sheets and D.K. Grayson (Editors), Volcanic Activity and Human Ecology. Academic Press Inc., New York and London, pp. 125-159.

 

 
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Download our pamphlets on preparing for ashfall and on the health hazards of ash. They are designed for mass distribution at the onset of new eruptions. They are now avaiable in English, Japanese, French Spanish, Portuguese, Swahili, Indonesian and Icelandic with Italian versions being available shortly. Please see our Pamphlets page for further infomation.

 

  

 

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IVHHN has an article under the Guidelines tab which used to be called 'Recommended Face Masks'. This has now been updated to 'Information on face masks' and is an interim page whilst the Health Interventions in Volcanic Eruptions project investigates which types of respiratory protection are effective in protecting the general population from volcanic ash inhalation. Please note that the translations in Spanish, Japanese and Portuguese have not yet been updated.

 

 

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