?????????????????

???? (HCl)

 

??

?????

?????????

????????

????

???? ?????? ????


??

????(HCl)?????0.8 ppm????????????????? ??????????(30??673 g L-1) (Gangolli, 1999)? ??????????????????? ???????????????25??1???1.49 g L-1? ???1.2?????(Lide, 2003)? ??????????HCl??????????0.1-3 ppm??? ?????????????? 0.000001-0.001 ppm?? ??????????????4???(Brimblecombe, 1996; Oppenheimer et al.,1998)?


?????

HCl?????????????????????????????????????????????????? HCl??????????????? ?????????????????????????(NIOSH,1981)? ????????HCl???????????????????????????????????? HCl????????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????

???????????????????
(Baxter, 2000; Faivre-Pierret and Le Guern, 1983 and references therein; NIOSH, 1981; Sax and Lewis, 1989).

????(ppm) ??????
5< ??
35 ????????????????
35< ????????????????
10-50 ?????????????
100< ?????????????
50-1000 1??????????
1000-2000 ????????????????


?????????

HCl?????????????????????????????????????

HCl???????????

?/?? ??? (ppm) ??? µg m-3 ???? ????? ???? ???? ? ??
??????? 5 8000 8?? TWA OEL   Commission Directive 96/94   a
10 15000 STEL OEL   Commission Directive 96/94   a
UK 5 8000 15? MEL   ILV   b
1 2000 8?? TWA MEL   ILV   b
?? 5 7000 8 ?? TWA PEL   OSHA Regulations (Standards - 29 CFR) 1 c
5 7000 ??? REL 2003? NIOSH   d
3   1?? ERPG-1 1998? Emergency Response Planning Guideline   e
20   1?? ERPG-2 1998? Emergency Response Planning Guideline   e
150   1?? ERPG-3 1998? Emergency Response Planning Guideline   e
  1. 25??760mmHg??????ppm
  1. http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/health_safety/docs/oels_en.pdf
  2. HSE, 2002. Occupational Exposure Limits 2002. HSE Books, Sudbury
  3. OSHA Standards Website
  4. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards (NPG) http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npg/npg.html
  5. AIHA Emergency Response Planning Guidelines Committee, 2002. Emergency Response Planning Guidelines 2002 Complete Set, American Industrial Hygiene Association, Fairfax.


????????

HCl???????????????????????????? ???HCl????????????????????????? ?????????????????????HCl???????????????????????


????

Allen, A.G., Oppenheimer, C., Ferm, M., Baxter, P.J., Horrocks, L.A., Galle, B., McGonigle, A.J.S. and Duffell, H.J., 2002. Primary sulfate aerosol and associated emissions from Masaya Volcano, Nicaragua. Journal of Geophysical Research, 107(D23).

Baxter, P.J., 2000. Gases. In: P.J. Baxter, P.H. Adams, T.-C. Aw, A. Cockcroft and J.M. Harrington (Editors), Hunter's Diseases of Occupations. Arnold, London, pp. 123-178.

Brimblecombe, P., 1996. Air Composition and Chemistry. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Faive-Pierret, R. and Le Guern, F., 1983. Health risks linked with inhalation of volcanic gases and aerosols. In: H. Tazieff and J.C. Sabroux (Editors), Forecasting Volcanic Events. Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., Amsterdam, pp. 69-81.

Gangolli, S. (Ed.), 1999. The Dictionary of Substances and their Effects, 2nd edn. The Royal Society of Chemistry. Cambridge.

Goff, F., Janik, C.J., Delgado, H., Werner, C., Counce, D., Stimac, J.A., Siebe, C., Love, S.P., Williams, S.N., Fischer, T. and Johnson, L., 1998. Geochemical surveillance of magmatic volatiles at Popocatpetl Volcano, Mexico. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 110(6): 695-710.

Kullman, G.J., Jones, W.G., Cornwell, R.J. and Parker, J.E., 1994. Characterization of air contaminants formed by the interaction of lava and sea water. Environmental Health Perspectives, 102(5): http://ehpnet1.niehs.nih.gov/docs/1994/102-5/kullman.html.

Lide, D.R. (Ed.), 2003. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th edn. CRC Press. Boca Raton, Florida.

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 1981. Occupational Health Guidelines for Chemical Hazards, DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 81-123. http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/81-123.html.

Oppenheimer, C., Francis, P., Burton, M., Maciejewski, A.J.H. and Boardman, L., 1998. Remote measurement of volcanic gases by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Applied Physics B, 67: 505-515.

Sax, N.I. and Lewis, R.J., Sr., 1989. Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials, 7th edn. Van Nostrand Reinhold. New York.

Smithsonian Institution, 1988. Yasur. Scientific Event Alert Network (SEAN) Bulletin, v. 13, no. 12.

Witter, J.B. and Delmelle, P., 2004. Acid gas hazards in the crater of Villarrica volcano (Chile). Revista Geologica de Chile, 31(2): 273-277.

 

 

 
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PAMPHLETS

Download our pamphlets on preparing for ashfall and on the health hazards of ash. They are designed for mass distribution at the onset of new eruptions. They are now avaiable in English, Japanese, French Spanish, Portuguese, Swahili, Indonesian and Icelandic with Italian versions being available shortly. Please see our Pamphlets page for further infomation.

 

  

 

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IVHHN has an article under the Guidelines tab which used to be called 'Recommended Face Masks'. This has now been updated to 'Information on face masks' and is an interim page whilst the Health Interventions in Volcanic Eruptions project investigates which types of respiratory protection are effective in protecting the general population from volcanic ash inhalation. Please note that the translations in Spanish, Japanese and Portuguese have not yet been updated.

 

 

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