?????????????????

?????(HF)

?????????????????????????????????????HF?????????????????? ??????????????????HF???????????????????????????? ??????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????????????????????????? (Okarsson, 1980)? ????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????? ??????????????????????????????? ????????????????? ????????????????????????????????(Gregory, 1996)? ?????????????????????HF???????? ??????????????????????????

??

?????

?????????

????????

????????

????

???? ?????? ????


??

????? (HF)????????????????? ????????????????(Gangolli, 1999)? ?????????????????????????????????????????? ???????30??????(25??1???0.82 g L-1 (Lide, 2003))? ?????????????HF????????1 ppm?????? ??????????????????????(Brimblecombe, 1996; Oppenheimer et al., 1998)?


?????

????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????????????????? ??????????????????????????? ????????????????????????? ??????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????????????????????? (NIOSH, 1981)? ???????????????????????????

???????????????????????
(Baxter, 2000; NIOSH, 1981; Sax and Lewis, 1989)

???? (ppm) ??????
<3 ???????
3< 1????????????????????????????????
30 ??????????????????????
50-250 ??????????
120 1?????????????????? ????????????????????

????????HF????????????????????????? ????????????????????????????

???????????????????
(Kaminsky et al., 1990????)

??
(mg L-1)
?????? ?????????(%)
1 ?????? 1-2
2 ?????? 10
2.4-4.1 ?????? 33
8 ???? (X?) -
>10 ????? -


?????????

HF???????????????????????????? ????HF?????????????????????? ????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????????

 

HF??????????????

?/?? ??? (ppm) ??? µg m-3 ???? ????? ???? ???? ? ??
??????? - 2500 8?? TWA ??????(OEL)   Adopted recomm-
endations
  a
1 830 STEL OEL   Adopted recomm-
endations
  a
?? 3 2500 15? MEL   New, IOELV   b
1.8 1500 8?? TWA MEL   New, IOELV   b
USA 6 5000 15???? REL 2003? NIOSH   c
3 2500 8?? TWA PEL   OSHA Regulations (Standards - 29 CFR) 1 d
3 2500 10?? TWA REL 2003? NIOSH   c
2   10? ERPG-1 1999? Emergency Response Planning Guideline   e
50   10? ERPG-2 1999? Emergency Response Planning Guideline   e
170   10? ERPG-3 1999? Emergency Response Planning Guideline   e
2   1?? ERPG-1 1997? Emergency Response Planning Guideline   e
20   1?? ERPG-2 1997? Emergency Response Planning Guideline   e
50   1?? ERPG-3 1997? Emergency Response Planning Guideline   e
  1. 25??760mmHg???????ppm
  1. http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/health_safety/docs/oels_en.pdf
  2. HSE, 2002. Occupational Exposure Limits 2002. HSE Books, Sudbury.
  3. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards (NPG). http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npg/npg.html
  4. OSHA Standards Website
  5. AIHA Emergency Response Planning Guidelines Committee, 2002. Emergency Response Planning Guidelines 2002 Complete Set, American Industrial Hygiene Association, Fairfax.

 

????????????????

?/?? ???
(mg L-1)
???? ???? ? ??
?? 1.5 2000? Water Supply (Water Quality) Regulations SI No. 3184   a
?????? 1.5 1984?   1 b
USA 4 2004? EPA 822-R-04-005 2 c
  1. 1??L?????????? ??????????????????????
  2. ?????????????????? ????????????????????????????????2 mg L-1?
  1. http://www.dwi.gov.uk/regs/si3184/3184.htm
  2. WHO, 2004. Guidelines for drinking-water quality, 3rd edn. World Health Organisation. Geneva, and http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/dwq/gdwq3/en/
  3. EPA 2004 Edition of the drinking water standards and health advisories, http://www.epa.gov/waterscience/drinking/


????????

???????????250ppm?????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????????????? ??????????????????????????????????????? ?????????????0.5mm????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????(O'Hara et al., 1982)?


????????

HF??????????????????????????????????? ????HF???????????????????????????????????????? 2?????????????????????????????????????????? ??????????????HF??????????????????????????????????????????????????

  • ????????????: 1997?2???????HF????0.3 ppm (250 ?g m-3) (Goff et al., 1998)?????????????????????????????
  • ?????????: 2001?5????????????????????????? 0.567 ppm (448 ?g m-3) (Allen et al., 2002)???????????????????????????? ???????1999?3??????????????????????????4 ppm???????(Horrocks et al., 1999)? ????????????????????????????????
  • ???????????: 1990?3????????????????????????????????HF??????????? <1 ppm (Kullman et al., 1994)????? 2004???????????????HF???????????????3ppm??15ppm??????????????????? (USGS, Hawaiian Volcano Observatory, unpublished data).

HF???????????????????????????????????????????????? ????????????????????????????????????

  • ???????????????: 2003???????????????????????????????????? ????WHO???????15?????23 mg L-1????????????
  • ????????: 1988?????????100,000????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????? (???????)? ???????????????????????????(SEAN 14:6-7)? ???????????????????????????
  • ????????; ?????????; ??????????????: ?????????????????????????????? (Garrec et al., 1977; Notcutt and Davies, 1989; Notcutt and Davies, 1993).
  • ??????????????: ??????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????? (Notcutt and Davies, 1999).
  • ??????????: 1970???????????????????????????????????????????? 1mm??????????????????????3?????8-9??????? (Thorarinsson and Sigvaldason, 1972, O'Hara, et al., 1982)?
  • ?????????????: 1995????????????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????1995??1996?????????????????? (Cronin et al., 2003)?
  • ???????????: 1783-1784??????????????????????????????11,500???28,000???190,000?? ??????????????????(Gregory, 1996)?


????

Allen, A.G., Oppenheimer, C., Ferm, M., Baxter, P.J., Horrocks, L.A., Galle, B., McGonigle, A.J.S. and Duffell, H.J., 2002. Primary sulfate aerosol and associated emissions from Masaya Volcano, Nicaragua. Journal of Geophysical Research, 107(D23).

Brimblecombe, P., 1996. Air Composition and Chemistry. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Cronin, S.J., Neall, V.E., Lecointre, J.A., Hedley, M.J. and Loganathan, P., 2003. Environmental hazards of fluoride in volcanic ash: a case study from Ruapehu volcano, New Zealand. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 121(3-4): 271-291.

Gangolli, S. (Ed.), 1999. The Dictionary of Substances and their Effects, 2nd edn. The Royal Society of Chemistry. Cambridge.

Garrec, J.P., Lounowski, A. and Plebin, R., 1977. The influence of volcanic fluoride emissions on the surrounding vegetation. Fluoride, 10(4): 152-156.

Goff, F., Janik, C.J., Delgado, H., Werner, C., Counce, D., Stimac, J.A., Siebe, C., Love, S.P., Williams, S.N., Fischer, T. and Johnson, L., 1998. Geochemical surveillance of magmatic volatiles at Popocatpetl Volcano, Mexico. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 110(6): 695-710.

Gregory, N., 1996. Toxicity hazards arising from volcanic activity. Surveillance, 23(2): 14-15.

Kaminsky, L.S., Mahoney, M.C., Leach, J.F., Melius, J.M. and Miller, M.J., 1990. Fluoride: benefits and risks of exposure. Critical Reviews in Oral Biology and Medicine, 1: 261-281.

Kullman, G.J., Jones, W.G., Cornwell, R.J. and Parker, J.E., 1994. Characterization of air contaminants formed by the interaction of lava and sea water. Environmental Health Perspectives, 102(5): http://ehpnet1.niehs.nih.gov/docs/1994/102-5/kullman.html.

Lide, D.R. (Ed.), 2003. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th edn. CRC Press. Boca Raton, Florida.

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 1981. Occupational Health Guidelines for Chemical Hazards, DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 81-123. http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/81-123.html.

Notcutt, G. and Davies, F., 1989. Accumulation of volcanogenic fluoride by vegetation: Mt. Etna, Sicily. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 39(4): 329-333.

Notcutt, G. and Davies, F., 1993. Dispersion of gaseous volcanogenic fluoride, island of Hawaii. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 56: 125-131.

Notcutt, G. and Davies, F., 1999. Biomonitoring of volcanogenic fluoride, Furnas Caldera, Sao Miguel, Azores. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 92(1-2): 209-214.

O'Hara, P.J., Fraser A.J., James M.P., 1982. Superphosphate poisoning in sheep: the role of fluoride. New Zealand Veterinary Journal, 30: 191-201.

Oppenheimer, C., Francis, P., Burton, M., Maciejewski, A.J.H. and Boardman, L., 1998. Remote measurement of volcanic gases by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Applied Physics B, 67: 505-515.

Oskarsson, N., 1980. The interaction between volcanic gases and tephra: fluorine adhering to tephra of the 1970 Hekla eruption. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 8, 251-266.

Sax, N.I. and Lewis, R.J., Sr., 1989. Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials, 7th edn. Van Nostrand Reinhold. New York.

Smithsonian Institution, 1989. Lonquimay. Scientific Event Alert Network (SEAN) Bulletin, v. 14, nos. 6-7.

Thorarinsson, S. and Sigvaldason, G.E., 1972. The Hekla eruption of 1970. Bulletin Volcanologique, 36(2): 269-288.

 

 

 
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PAMPHLETS

Download our pamphlets on preparing for ashfall and on the health hazards of ash. They are designed for mass distribution at the onset of new eruptions. They are now avaiable in English, Japanese, French Spanish, Portuguese, Swahili, Indonesian and Icelandic with Italian versions being available shortly. Please see our Pamphlets page for further infomation.

 

  

 

FACE MASK USE

IVHHN has an article under the Guidelines tab which used to be called 'Recommended Face Masks'. This has now been updated to 'Information on face masks' and is an interim page whilst the Health Interventions in Volcanic Eruptions project investigates which types of respiratory protection are effective in protecting the general population from volcanic ash inhalation. Please note that the translations in Spanish, Japanese and Portuguese have not yet been updated.

 

 

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