?????????????????

?????(PM)??????

??

?????

?????????

????????

????

???? ?????? ????


??

???????????????????????????? ??????????????????????(PM)?????????????????????? ?????????????????????? PM??????????????????????(TPM)??????????(TSP)??? ?????10?m????????(PM10)?2.5?m????????(PM2.5)?????? ???????????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????????????? ????????????????? ???????????????????????????? ???PM?????????????????????????????????????????? ????????????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????????????????? PM2.5????????(e.g. Allen et al., 2002)? ????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ??????????????????????????????(e.g. Baxter et al., 1999)? ????????????????????????


?????

??: ???????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????? ????????????????????? ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ??????????????????????????????????????????

???????????????????????????????? ?????(PM2.5)???????????????? ?????????????????????????????? ?????????????????? ?????????????????????????? ??????????????????????????? ????????????????? ?????? "???"??(??0.1?m??)?????????????????????? ??????????????? ????????????(100 ?g m-3??)?????? PM????????????????????????????????(WHO, 1999)? ???????????????????????? PM2.5?????????????????????????????? ????????? 1???????????????????????PM????????????????????? ????PM2.5?????PM10???????????????????(e.g. Braga et al., 2001)? ????????0.5??????????????????????????????? ????????????????????????????????????????? ????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ???PM?????????????????????????? ????????????????????????????????????????????????


?????????

???????????????????????????????? ???????????????????(TPM)?????????? ?????????PM10???PM2.5????????????????????? ???????????????????????? 1971??????????(EPA)?????????????????????????????1000?g m-3 (24????)???????? ??????? ??????????????????????????????????????? ???????EPA?????????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????????

 

?????????????????????????

?/
??
????? ???
(µg m-3)
???? ????? ???? ???? ??
?????? TPM 150 1??   1973?4?16? Ley 20.284 a
?? TPM 260 24?? 1?????????? 1978?6?22? Resolución No. 1215 a
75 1?   1978?6?22? Resolución No. 1215 a
PM10 150 24?? 1??98??????24???? 1998?5?25? Decreto Supremo No 59/98 a
??1 TPM 120 (i),
300 (ii),
500 (iii)
24??   1996?1? GB 3095-1996 a
80 (i),
200 (ii),
300 (iii)
1?   1996?1? GB 3095-1996 a
PM10 50 (i),
150 (ii),
250 (iii)
24??   1996?1? GB 3095-1996 a
40 (i),
100 (ii),
150 (iii)
1?   1996?1? GB 3095-1996 a
????? TPM 400 24?? 1??2??????? 1982?1?11? Decreto No. 2 a
100 1?   1982?1?11? Decreto No. 2 a
????? TPM 240 24?? 1??2???????   Reglamento sobre inmisión de contaminantes atmosféricos a
90 1?     Reglamento sobre inmisión de contaminantes atmosféricos a
PM10 150 24?? 1??2???????   Reglamento sobre inmisión de contaminantes atmosféricos a
50 1?     Reglamento sobre inmisión de contaminantes atmosféricos a
????? TPM 250 24?? 1??2??????? 1991?7?15? Registro Oficial No. 726 a
80 1?   1991?7?15? Registro Oficial No. 726 a
??????? PM10 50 24?? 1??36??????? 2005?1?1? COUNCIL DIRECTIVE 1999/30/EC b
40 1?   2005?1?1? COUNCIL DIRECTIVE 1999/30/EC b
?? PM10 200 1??   1973?5?8?   c
100 24??   1973?5?8?   c
???? TPM 260 24?? ???? 1994?12?23? NOM-024-
SSA1-1993
a
75 1?   1994?12?23? NOM-024-
SSA1-1993
a
PM10 150 24?? 1??2??????? 1994?12?23? NOM-025-SSA1-
1993
a
50 1?   1994?12?23? NOM-025-
SSA1-1993
a
???????? PM10 50 24??   2002?5?   d
20 1?   2002?5?   d
?? PM10 50 24 hours 1??36??????? 2004?12?31? The Air Quality (England) Regulations 2000 e
40 1?   2004?12?31? The Air Quality (England) Regulations 2000 e
?? PM10 150 24?? ?1? & ?2? 1990? NAAQS f
50 1? ?1? & ?2? 1990? NAAQS f
PM2.5 65 24?? ?1? & ?2? 1990? NAAQS f
15 1? ?1? & ?2? 1990? NAAQS f
  1. (i) ????????????; (ii) ????????????? (iii) ??????
  1. http://www.cepis.ops-oms.org/bvsci/e/fulltext/normas/normas.html
  2. European Commission Guidelines Website
  3. http://www.env.go.jp/en/lar/regulation/aq.html
  4. http://www.mfe.govt.nz/publications/air/ambient-guide-may02.pdf
  5. http://www.defra.gov.uk/environment/airquality/airqual/index.htm
  6. http://www.epa.gov/air/criteria.html

????????????

??????????????????????? ????????????????????????????????? ????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????(???????????????????????????) ?????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????????

 

????????????????????????

???? TPM PM10 PM2.5
???
(µg m-3)
???
(µg m-3)
???
(µg m-3)
???
(µg m-3)
???
(µg m-3)
???
(µg m-3)
24?? 120 500 50 250 65 65
1? 40 150 20 150 15 15

 


????????????????????

?/
??
????? ???
(µg m-3)
???? ????? ???? ??
?? TPM 15000 8?? TWA ?????? (PEL) OSHA Regulations (Standards - 29 CFR) a
PM10 5000 8?? TWA ?????? (PEL) OSHA Regulations (Standards - 29 CFR) a
  1. OSHA Standards Website


????????

????????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????????????(??? Yano et al., 1990)? ??????????????????????????????????????(SO42-)???????????????????

  • ?????????: 2001?12??????????????????????165 ?g m-3 (6????)??? (Mather et al., 2003)??????125 ?g m-3?? ???PM2.5????24?????????????2????? ???????????PM10?????????????????????????????? ????????????PM2.5????????????????????????? ????????????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????? ????????????????????????????????????(Delmelle et al., 2002)?

????????????????????????????? ????1983?9?????????????10-300km????SO42-?????????? 0.1-10 ?g m-3???????(Bergametti et al., 1984; Martin et al., 1986)? 1989-90??????????????????????????????PM10?????? 11.1 ?g m-3???? ??????????????????????????? ????80 ?g m-3 ???PM2.5?1?????? ??????????????????????????????? ??????????????????? (National Park Service, 2003 unpublished data)? 1987???1991???????????????????? ??????????????????????????????????? 1981???1986????????????????(Mannino et al., 1996)? ????????????????PM????????????????? ?????????? ????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????? "??(vog)"???????????

???????????????????? ???????????????????????????????????????????

  • ????????????: ???????????????????????????????????????????? (Moya et al., 2003; Raga et al., 1999)? ????????PM10?????????????????????????????? 1????????????????24???????????(Moya et al., 2003)? ????????????????????????????????????? 1994?12???1995?4????????????????????????????????? ?????15km??????1440 ?g m-3?????(Rojas-Ramos et al., 2001)? ?????????24??TPM???5????????
  • ??????????: ??????????????????????????????????????????? ???(PM1.5-PM2.5)S?Cl?Cu????Zn?????????????????????????? (Miranda et al., 2004)?
  • ?????: 1980???????????35km??????????????TSP??? 200 ?g m-3????????53??????? ????345 ?g m-3 ?????????????????? (Yano et al., 1986)? 1986?1????25km???????PM10?????????340 ?g m-3???????? (Yano et al., 1990).
  • ??????????????: 1997??1998????????????? ???????????????????PM10?????????????????????? ???????????100-500 ?g m-3?????????(Searl et al., 2002)? ????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????? ??????????????????????????

??????????????????????????????????? ????????????Horwell and Baxter (???)???????????

  • ???????????: 1980?5?18???????????????????????????33402 ?g m-3???? 1???1000 ?g m-3????????(??????????80 ?g m-3) (Baxter et al., 1983)? ???????????EPA????????????? ???????????PM10???????????????????????????????? ??????????(Bernstein et al., 1986)? ???????????????????????????????????????????????? (Baxter et al., 1981)?
  • ??????????: 1991??????????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????(Mason, 2002)?

???????????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????????????????????? ????????????????????????? ?????????????????????(???? Mannino et al., 1996); ???????????(??? Baxter et al., 1981; Baxter et al 1983; Bernstein et al., 1986); ?????(Choudhury et al., 1997; Gordian et al., 1996); ????????????(Rojas-Ramos et al., 2001); ?????????????(Hickling et al., 1999); ?????(??? Wakisaka et al., 1988, Yano et al., 1986); ????????????????(??? Forbes et al. 2003); ????????????????(??? Leus et al., 1981) ?????????????????????? ????????????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????????????????????? ?????? ????????????????????????????????????????????


????

Allen, A.G., Oppenheimer, C., Ferm, M., Baxter, P.J., Horrocks, L.A., Galle, B., McGonigle, A.J.S. and Duffell, H.J., 2002. Primary sulfate aerosol and associated emissions from Masaya Volcano, Nicaragua. Journal of Geophysical Research 107(D23).

Baxter, P.J., Ing, R., Falk, H. and Plikaytis, B., 1983. Mount St. Helens eruptions: the acute respiratory effects of volcanic ash in a North American community. Archives of Environmental Health, 38(3): 138-143.

Baxter, P.J., Ing, R., Falk, H., French, J., Stein, G.F., Bernstein, R.S., Merchant, J.A. and Allard, A., 1981. Mount St Helens eruptions, May 18 to June 12, 1980. Journal of the American Medical Association, 246(22): 2585-2589.

Baxter, P.J., Bonadonna, C., Dupree, R., Hards, V.L., Kohn, S.C., Murphy, M.D., Nichols, A., Nicholson, R.A., Norton, G., Searl, A., Sparks, R.S.J. and Vickers, B.P., 1999. Cristobalite in volcanic ash of the Soufriere Hills volcano, Montserrat, British West Indies. Science, 283: 1142-145.

Bergametti, G., Martin, D., Carbonnelle, J., Faivre-Pierret, R. and Vie Le Sage, R., 1984. A mesoscale study of the elemental composition of aerosols emitted from Mt. Etna Volcano. Bulletin of Volcanology, 47(4(2)): 1107-1114.

Bernstein, R.S., Baxter, P.J., Falk, H., Ing, R., Foster, L. and Frost, F., 1986. Immediate public health concerns and actions in volcanic eruptions: lessons from the Mount St. Helens eruptions, May 18 - October 18, 1980. American Journal of Public Health, 76(Supplement): 25-37.

Braga, A.L.F., Zanobetti, A. and Schwartz, J., 2001. The lag structure between particulate air pollution and respiratory and cardiovascular deaths in 10 US cities. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 43(11): 927-933.

Choudhury, A.H., Gordian, M.E. and Morris, S.S., 1997. Associations between respiratory illness and PM10 air pollution. Archives of Environmental Health, 52(2): 113-117.

Delmelle, P., Stix, J., Baxter, P.J., Garcia-Alvarez, J. and Barquero, J., 2002. Atmospheric dispersion, environmental effects and potential health hazard associated with the low-altitude gas plume of Masaya volcano, Nicaragua. Bulletin of Volcanology 64(6), 423-434.

Forbes, L., Jarvis, D., Potts, J. and Baxter, P.J., 2003. Volcanic ash and respiratory symptoms in children on the island of Montserrat, British West Indies. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 60(3): 207-211.

Gordian, M.E., ?zkaynak, H., Xue, J., Morris, S.S. and Spengler, J.D., 1996. Particulate air pollution and respiratory disease in Anchorage, Alaska. Environmental Health Perspectives, 104(3): 290-297.

Hickling, J., Clements, M., Weinstein, P. and Woodward, A., 1999. Acute health effects of the Mount Ruapehu (New Zealand) volcanic eruption of June 1996. International Journal of Environmental Health Research, 9(2): 97-107.

Horwell, C.J. and Baxter, P.J., In review. A critical review of the studies on the respiratory health hazards of volcanic ash. Bulletin of Volcanology.

Leus, X., Kintanar, C. and Bowman, V., 1981. Asthmatic bronchitis associated with a volcanic eruption in St. Vincent, West Indies. Disasters, 5: 67-69.

Mannino, D.M., Ruben, S., Holschuh, F.C., Holschuh, T.C., Wilson, M.D. and Holschuh, T., 1996. Emergency department visits and hospitalizations for respiratory disease on the island of Hawaii, 1981 to 1991. Hawaii Medical Journal, 55: 48-54.

Martin, D., Ardouin, B., Bergametti, G., Carbonnelle, J., Faivre-Pierret, R., Lambert, G., Le Cloarec, M.F. and Sennequier, G., 1986. Geochemistry of sulfur in Mount Etna plume. Journal of Geophysical Research, 91(B12): 12,249-12,254.

Mason, B., 2002. Pinatubo dust is still a killer. New Scientist, 175(2351): 7.

Mather, T.M., Allen, A.G., Oppenheimer, C., Pyle, D.M. and McGonigle, A.J.S., 2003. Size-resolved characterisation of soluble ions in the particles in the tropospheric plume of Masaya volcano, Nicaragua: origins and plume processing. Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry 46(3), 207-237.

Miranda, J., Zepeda, F. and Galindo, I., 2004. The possible influence of volcanic emissions on atmospheric aerosols in the city of Colima, Mexico. Environmental Pollution, 127: 271-279.

Moya, M., Castro, T., Zepeda, M. and Baez, A., 2003. Characterization of size-differentiated inorganic composition of aerosols in Mexico City. Atmospheric Environment, 37(25): 3581-3591.

Raga, G.B., Kok, G.L., Baumgardner, D., Baez, A. and Rosas, I., 1999. Evidence for volcanic influence on Mexico City aerosols. Geophysical Research Letters, 26(8): 1149-1152.

Rojas-Ramos, M., Catalan-Vazquez, M., Martin - Del Pozzo, A.L., Garcia-Ojeda, E., Villalba-Caloca, J. and Perez-Neria, J., 2001. A seven months prospective study of the respiratory effects of exposure to ash from Popocatepetl volcano, Mexico. Environmental Geochemistry and Health, 23: 383-396.

Searl, A., Nicholl, A. and Baxter, P.J., 2002. Assessment of the exposure of islanders to ash from the Soufriere Hills volcano, Montserrat, British West Indies. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 59(8): 523-531.

Wakisaka, I., Yanagihashi, T., Tomari, T. and Ando, T., 1988. Effects of volcanic activity on the mortality figures of respiratory disease. Japan Journal of Hygiene, 42(6): 1101-1110.

WHO, 1999. Guidelines for Air Quality, World Health Organisation, Geneva.

Yano, E., Yokoyama, Y. and Nishii, S., 1986. Chronic pulmonary effects of volcanic ash: an epidemiological study. Archives of Environmental Health, 41(2): 94-99.

Yano, E., Yokoyama, Y., Higashi, H., Nishii, S., Maeda, K. and Koizumi, A., 1990. Health effects of volcanic ash: a repeat study. Archives of Environmental Health, 45(6): 367-373.

 
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PAMPHLETS

Download our pamphlets on preparing for ashfall and on the health hazards of ash. They are designed for mass distribution at the onset of new eruptions. They are now avaiable in English, Japanese, French Spanish, Portuguese, Swahili, Indonesian and Icelandic with Italian versions being available shortly. Please see our Pamphlets page for further infomation.

 

  

 

FACE MASK USE

IVHHN has an article under the Guidelines tab which used to be called 'Recommended Face Masks'. This has now been updated to 'Information on face masks' and is an interim page whilst the Health Interventions in Volcanic Eruptions project investigates which types of respiratory protection are effective in protecting the general population from volcanic ash inhalation. Please note that the translations in Spanish, Japanese and Portuguese have not yet been updated.

 

 

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