Dr Peter Baxter
Consultant Physician, Occupational & Environmental Medicine,
Department of Public Health and Primary Care
Peter Baxter has been involved in the health aspects of many major volcanic eruptions as adviser to governments or the World Health Organization. His first involvement was following the eruption of Mount St Helens in 1980. Between 1992-2001 he was a member of the UK Expert Panel on Air Quality Standards (DEFRA) and between 1992-2000 he was a member of the UK International Decade for International Disaster Reduction (Royal Society and Royal Academy of Engineering). Lately, (1995-present) he has been an adviser to the UK Department of Health and Chief Medical Officer, England & Wales, on the Montserrat volcanic crisis. He has been a member of a French/English scientific team sent to evaluate the Nyiragongo eruption, Congo and recently evaluated the Rabaul, Papua New Guinea eruption for the World Health Organisation.
Horwell, C.J. and Baxter, P.J. 2006. The respiratory health hazards of volcanic ash: a review for volcanic risk mitigation. Bulletin of Volcanology. 69, 1-24.
Searl, A., Nicholl, A., and Baxter, P.J. 2002. Assessment of the exposure of islanders to ash from the Soufriere Hills volcano, Montserrat, West Indies. Occup. Environ. Med., 59, 523-531.
Loughlin SC, Baxter PJ, Aspinall WP, et al. 2002. Eyewitness accounts of the 25 June 1997 block and ash flows at Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat, and implications for disaster mitigation. In: Druitt, T.H. and Kokelaar, B.P. (eds.) The eruption of the Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat 1995 to 1999. Geological Society, London. Memoir 21.
Delmelle, P., Stix, J., Bourque, C.P.-A., Baxter, P.J., Garcia-Alvarez, J., and Barquero, J. 2001. Dry deposition and heavy acid loading in the vicinity of Masaya volcano, a major sulfur and chlorine source in Nicaragua. Environ. Sci. Technol., 35, 1289-1293.
Ayres J, Baxter P.J., et al. Expert Panel on Air Quality Standards: airborne particles: what is an appropriate measurement on which to base a standard? London: DEFRA, 2001
Allen, A.G., Baxter, P.J., and Ottley, C.J. 2000. Gas and particle emissions from Soufriere Hills volcano, Montserrat, West Indies: characterization and health hazard assessment. Bull. Volcanol., 62, 8-19.
Baxter, P.J., Bonadonna, C., Dupree, R., Hards, V.L., Kohn, S.C., Murphy, M.D., Nichols, A., Nicholson, R.A., Norton, G., Searl A., Sparks, R.S.J. and Vickers, B.P., (1999) Cristobalite in volcanic ash of the Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat: Hazards implications. Science 283, 1142-1145.
Baxter PJ. Impacts of Eruptions on Human Health. Chap. In : Encyclopedia of Volcanoes. Sigurdsson H. et al. (eds.). San Diego: Academic Press. 1999; 1035-1043
Baxter, P.J., Baubron, J.-C., and Coutinho, R. 1999. Health hazards and disaster potential of ground gas emissions at Furnas volcano, Sao Miguel, Azores. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 92, 95-106.
Baxter, P.J., Woo, G., and Pomonis, A. 1998. Preliminary assessment of volcanic risk on Montserrat. Montserrat Volcano Observatory, pp. 32.
Baxter, P.J., and Seaton, A. 1997. Report on long-term health impacts of volcanic ash: Health risk assessment of exposure to ash from the Soufriere Hills volcano, Montserrat. Department of Health, London, pp. 3.
Baxter, P.J., Kapila, M., and Mfonfu, D. 1989. Lake Nyos disaster, Cameroon, 1986: the medical effects of large scale emission of carbon dioxide. BMJ, 298, 1437-1441.
Baxter, P.J., Bernstein, R.S., and Buist, A.S. 1986. Preventive health measures in volcanic eruptions. Am. J. Public Health, 76, 84-90.
Bernstein, R.S., Baxter, P.J., and Buist, A.S. 1986. Introduction to the epidemiological aspects of explosive volcanism. Am. J. Public Health, 76, 3-9.
Bernstein, R.S., Baxter, P.J., Falk, H., Ing, R., Foster, L., and Frost, F. 1986b. Immediate public health concerns and actions in volcanic eruptions: lessons from the Mount St. Helens eruptions, May 18-October 18, 1980. Am. J. Public Health, 76, 25-37.
Baxter, P.J. 1983. Health hazards of volcanic eruptions. J R Coll Physicians Lond, 17, 180-182.
Baxter, P.J., Ing, R., Falk, H., and Plikaytis, B. 1983. Mount St. Helens eruptions: the acute respiratory effects of volcanic ash in a North American community. Arch. Environ. Health, 38, 138-43.
Merchant, J.A., Baxter, P.J., Bernstein, R.S., McCawley, M., Falk, H., Stein, G., Ing, R., and Attfield, M. 1982. Health implications of the Mount St. Helens eruption: epidemiological considerations. Ann. Occup. Hyg., 26, 911-919.
Download our pamphlets on preparing for ashfall and on the health hazards of ash. They are designed for mass distribution at the onset of new eruptions. They are now avaiable in English, Japanese, French Spanish, Portuguese, Swahili, Indonesian and Icelandic with Italian versions being available shortly. Please see our Pamphlets page for further infomation.