English Dutch French German Italian Portuguese Russian Spanish



Witter, J. B. & Delmelle, P. (2004) 'Acid gas hazards in the crater of Villarrica volcano (Chile)', Revista Geologica De Chile, 31(2), 273-277.


*OPS. (2000) Erupciones volcanicas y proteccion de la salud. Quito, Ecuador:Organizacion Panamerica de la Salud.

*Article in Spanish


Goff, F., Janik, C. J., Delgado, H., Werner, C., Counce, D., Stimac, J. A., Siebe, C., Love, S. P., Williams,

S. N., Fischer, T. & Johnson, L. (1998) 'Geochemical surveillance of magmatic volatiles at Popocatepetl volcano, Mexico', Geological Society of America Bulletin, 110(6), 695-710.


Allen, A. G., Baxter, P. J. & Ottley, C. J. (2000) 'Gas and particle emissions from Soufriere Hills Volcano, Montserrat, West Indies: characterization and health hazard assessment', Bulletin of Volcanology, 62(1), 8-19.


Allen, A. G., Oppenheimer, C., Ferm, M., Baxter, P. J., Horrocks, L. A., Galle, B., McGonigle, A. J. S. & Duffell, H. J. (2002) 'Primary sulfate aerosol and associated emissions from Masaya Volcano, Nicaragua', Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 107(D23), 8.

Baxter, P. J., Stoiber, R. E. & Williams, S. N. (1982) 'Volcanic Gases and Health - Masaya Volcano, Nicaragua', Lancet, 2(8290), 150-151.

Delmelle, P., Stix, J., Baxter, P. J., Garcia-Alvarez, J. & Barquero, J. (2002) 'Atmospheric dispersion, environmental effects and potential health hazard associated with the low-altitude gas plume of Masaya volcano, Nicaragua', Bulletin of Volcanology, 64(6), 423-434.

Delmelle, P., Stix, J., Bourque, C. P.-A., Baxter, P. J., Garcia-Alvarez, J. & Barquero, J. (2001) 'Dry deposition and heavy acid loading in the vicinity of Masaya volcano, a major sulfur and chlorine source in Nicaragua', Environmental Science and Technology, 35, 1289-1293.

Mather, T. A., Allen, A. G., Oppenheimer, C., Pyle, D.M., & McGonigle, A.J.S. (2003) 'Size resolved particle compositions of the tropospheric plume of Masaya volcano, Nicaragua', Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry, 46(3), 207-237.

Van Manen, S.M. (2014) ‘Perception of a chronic volcanic hazard: persistent degassing at Masaya volcano, Nicaragua’, Journal of Applied Volcanology, 3, 9.

St Vincent

Cronn, D. R. & Nutmagul, W. (1982) 'Volcanic gasses in the April 1979 Soufriere eruption', Science, 216(4550), 1121-1123.


Cantrell, L., & Young, M. (2009) ‘Fatal fall into a volcanic fumarole’, Wilderness and Environmental Medicine, 20(1), 77-79.

Hill, P. M. (2000) 'Possible asphyxiation from carbon dioxide of a cross-country skier in eastern California: a deadly volcanic hazard', Wilderness & Environmental Medicine, 11(3), 192-195.


Camara, J.G., & Lagunzad, J.K.D. (2011) ‘Ocular findings in volcanic fog induced conjunctivitis’, Hawaii Medical Journal , 70(12), 262.

Chow, D. C., Grandinetti, A., Fernandez, E., Sutton, A. J., Elias, T., Brooks, B., & Tam, E. K. (2010) ‘Is volcanic air pollution associated with decreased heart-rate variability?’, Heart Asia, 2(1), 36-41.

Heggie, T. W. (2005) 'Reported fatal and non-fatal incidents involving tourists in Hawaii National Park, 1992 - 2002', Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, 2005(3):123-131.

Heggie, T. W., Heggie, T. M. & Heggie, T. J. (2009) ‘Death by Volcanic Laze’, Wilderness & Environmental Medicine, 20, 101-103.

Hollingshead, A. T., Businger, S., Draxler, R., Porter, J. & Stevens, D. (2003) 'Dispersion modelling of the Kilauea plume', Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 108(1), 121-144.

Kullman, G. J., Jones, W. G., Cornwell, R. J. & Parker, J. E. (1994) 'Characterization of Air Contaminants Formed by the Interaction of Lava and Sea-Water', Environmental Health Perspectives,102(5), 478-482.

Longo, B.M. (2009) ‘The Kilauea Volcano Adult Health Study’, Nursing Research, 58(1), 23-31.

Longo, B.M. (2013) ‘Adverse health effects associated with increased activity at Kīlauea Volcano: A repeated population-based survey’, ISRN Public Health, 2013, Article ID 475962.

Longo, B.M, Grunder, A, Chuan, R., & Rossignol, A. (2005)SO2 and fine aerosol dispersion from the Kilauea plume, Kau district, Hawaii, USA’, Geology, 33(3), 217-220.

Longo B.M., Rossignol, A., & Green, J.B. (2008) ‘Cardiorespiratory health effects associated with sulfurous volcanic air pollution’, Public Health, 122(8), 809-820.

Longo B.M., & Yang, W. (2008) ‘Acute bronchitis and volcanic air pollution: A community-based cohort study at Kilauea Volcano, Hawai'i, USA’, Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A, 71:24, 1565-1571.

Longo, B.M., Yang, W., Green, J.B., Crosby, F.L., & Crosby, V.L. (2010) ‘Acute Health Effects Associated with Exposure to Volcanic Air Pollution (vog) from Increased Activity at Kilauea Volcano in 2008’, Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A, 73(20), 1370 - 1381.

Longo, B. M., Yang, W., Green, J. B., Longo, A. A., Harris, M. & Bibilone, R. (2010) 'An Indoor Air Quality Assessment for Vulnerable Populations Exposed to Volcanic Vog From Kilauea Volcano', Family & Community Health, 33(1), 21-31.

Mannino, D. M., Ruben, S., Holschuh, F. C., Holschuh, T. C., Wilson, M. D. & Holschuh, T. (1996) 'Emergency department visits and hospitalizations for respiratory disease on the island of Hawaii, 1981 to 1991', Hawaii Medical Journal, 55(3), 48-54.

Michaud, J. P., Grove, J. S. & Krupitsky, D. (2004) 'Emergency department visits and "vog"-related air quality in Hilo, Hawaii’, Environmental Research, 95(1), 11-19.

Michaud, J. P., Krupitsky, D., Grove, J. S. & Anderson, B. S. (2005) 'Volcano related atmospheric toxicants in Hilo and Hawaii Volcanoes National Park: Implications for human health', Neurotoxicology, 26(4), 555-563.

Sircar, K., Miike, R., Yip, F., Divinksi, T., & Tam, E. K. (2014) ‘Is Vog Exposure Associated With Airway Obstruction In Hawaii Island Schoolchildren?’, American Thoracic Society International Conference Abstracts, A104 Asthma Epidemiology.

Tam, E., Miike, R., Labrenz, S., Sutton, A.J., Elias, T., Davis, J., Chen, Y-L., Tantisira, K., Dockery, D., Avol E. (2016) 'Volcanic air pollution over the Island of Hawai'i: Emissions, dispersal, and composition. Association with respiratory symptoms and lung function in Hawai'i Island school children', Environment International, 92–93, 543-552.

Tharr, D. (1991) ‘Case Studies: Exposures to Volcanic Emissions from the Hawaiian Volcanoes: A NIOSH Health Hazard Evaluation’, Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, 6(6), 408-410.