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D'Alessandro, W. (2006) 'Gas hazard: an often neglected natural risk in volcanic areas', Geo- Environment and Landscape Evolution II, 89, 369-378.

D’Alessandro, W., Brusca, L., Kyriakopoulos, K., Michas, G. and Papadakis, G. (2009) 'Hydrogen sulphide as a natural air contaminant in volcanic/geothermal areas: the case of Sousaki, Corinthia

(Greece)', Environmental Geology, 57(8), 1723-1728.

D’Alessandro W. & Kyriakopoulos K. (2013) ‘Preliminary Gas Hazard evaluation in Greece’, Natural Hazards, 69, 1987-2004.



Laursen, L. (2010) ‘Iceland eruptions fuel interest in volcanic gas monitoring’, Science, 328, 410-411.

Schmidt, A., Ostro, B., Carslaw, K. S., Wilson, M., Thordarson, T., Mann, G. W., & Simmons, A. J. (2011) ‘Excess mortality in Europe following a future Laki-style Icelandic eruption’, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108(38), 15710-15715. http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1108569108


Courtillot, V. (2005) ‘New evidence for massive pollution and mortality in Europe in 1783–1784 may have bearing on global change and mass extinctions’, Comptes Rendus Geoscience, 337(7), 635-637.

Durand, M., & Grattan, J. (1999) ‘Extensive respiratory health effects of volcanogenic dry fog in 1783 inferred from European documentary sources’, Environmental Geochemistry and Health 21(4), 371-376.

Durand, M., Gilbertson, D., & Pyatt, F. B. (2003) ‘Human sickness and mortality rates in relation to the distant eruption of volcanic gases: rural England and the 1783 eruption of the Laki fissure, Iceland’, In: Skinner, C.W., and Berger, A.R. (eds) Geology and Health: Closing the Gap. New York, Oxford University Press, 19-24.

*Garnier, E. (2010) ‘The Laki fog of 1783. Volcanic activity and health crises in Europe’, Bulletin de l'Academie nationale de medecine, 195(4-5), 1043-53.

Grattan, J. (1998) 'The distal impact of Icelandic volcanic gases and aerosols in Europe: a review of the 1783 Laki Fissure eruption and environmental vulnerability in the late 20th century', Geohazards in Engineering Geology, (15), 97-103.

Grattan, J. (2005) ‘Pollution and paradigms: lessons from Icelandic volcanism for continental flood basalt studies’, Lithos, 79, 343-353.

Grattan, J., Durand, M. & Taylor, S. (2003) 'Illness and elevated human mortality in Europe coincident with the Laki Fissure eruption', Volcanic Degassing, 213, 401-414.

Grattan, JP, Michnowicz, S., & Rabartin, R. (2007) ‘The Long Shadow: understanding the influence of the Laki Fissure eruption on human mortality in Europe’, In: Grattan, J.P. & Torrence, R. (eds) Under the Shadow: the cultural and environmental impacts of volcanic eruptions. San Diego, Left Coast Press, 153- 174.

Grattan, J., Rabartin, R., Self, S., & Thordarson, T. (2005) ‘Volcanic air pollution and mortality in France 1783–1784’, Comptes Rendus Geoscience, 337, 641-651.

Witham, C. S., & Oppenheimer, C. (2004) ‘Mortality in England during the 1783–4 Laki Craters eruption’, Bulletin of Volcanology, 67(1), 15-26.

Non-peer reviewed

Carlsen, H.K. (2014) ‘Health effects of air pollution in Iceland: respiratory health in volcanic environments’, Doctoral Thesis, University of Iceland, Centre of Public Health.

*Michnowicz, S.A. (2011) ‘The Laki fissure eruption and UK mortality crises of 1783-1784’, MPhil Thesis, Institute of Geography and Earth Science, Aberystwyth University, UK.

Stone, R. (2004) ‘Iceland’s Doomsday scenario?’, Science, 305(5700), 1278-1281.


Alban Hills volcanic region

Annunziatellis, A., Ciotoli, G., Lombardi, S. & Nolasco, F. (2003) 'Short- and long-term gas hazard: the release of toxic gases in the Alban Hills volcanic area (central Italy)', Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 77(2-3), 93-108.

Beaubien, S. E., Ciotoli, G. & Lombardi, S. (2003) 'Carbon dioxide and radon gas hazard in the Alban Hills area (central Italy)', Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 123(1-2), 63-80.

Carapezza, M.L., Barberi, F., Tarchini, L., Ranaldi, M. & Ricci, T. (2010) ‘Volcanic hazard of Alban Hills’, In: Funiciello, R. & Giordano, G. (eds) The Colli Albani Volcano. Special Publications of IAVCEI, 3, Geological Society, London, 279–297. ISBN-13: 978-1862393073

Carapezza, M.L., Barberi, F., Tarchini, L., Ranaldi, M., Ricci, T., Barrancos, J., Fischer, C., Lucchetti, C., Melian, G., Perez, N., Tuccimei, P., Vogel, A. & Weber, K. (2012) ‘Hazardous gas emissions from the flanks of the quiescent Colli Albani volcano (Rome, Italy)’, Applied Geochemistry, 27(9), 1767-1782.

Carapezza, M.L., Ricci, T., Barberi, F., Ranaldi, M. & Tarchini, L. (2010) ‘Hazardous gas blowouts from shallow wells in the Colli Albani volcanic complex (Rome, Italy)’, In: Birkle, P., & Torres-Alvarado, I.S, eds. Water-Rock Interaction XIII, Cleveland, OH: CRC Press, 913-916.

Mount Etna

Allen, A. G., Mather, T. A., McGonigle, A. J. S., Aiuppa, A., Delmelle, P., Davison, B., Bobrowski, N., Oppenheimer, C., Pyle, D. M. & Inguaggiato, S. (2006) 'Sources, size distribution, and downwind grounding of aerosols from Mount Etna', Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 111(D10).

Bagnato, E., Aiuppa, A., Parello, F., Calabrese, S., D’Alessandro, W., Mather, T. A., McGonigle, A. J. S., Pyle, D. M. & Wängberg, I. (2007) ' Degassing of gaseous (elemental and reactive) and particulate mercury from Mount Etna volcano (Southern Italy)', Atmospheric Environment, 41, 7377-7388.

Brogna, A., La Delfa, S., La Monaca, V., Lo Nigro, S., Morelli, D., Patane, G. & Tringali, G. (2007) 'Measurements of indoor radon concentration on the south-eastern flank of Mount Etna volcano (Southern Italy)', Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 165(1-2), 71-75.

Nicoletti, A., Bruno, E., Nania, M., Cicero, E., Messina, S., Chisari, C., Torrisi, J., Maimone, D., Marziolo, R., Lo Fermo, S., Patti, F., Giammanco, S., & Zappia, M. (2013) ‘Multiple Sclerosis in the Mount Etna Region: Possible Role of Volcanogenic Trace Elements’, PloS one, 8(12), e74259.

Vulcano Island

Carapezza, M. L., Barberi, F., Ranaldi, M., Ricci, T., Tarchini, L., Barrancos, J., Fischer, C., Perez, N., Weber, K., Di Piazza, A. & Gattuso, A. (2011) ‘Diffuse CO2 soil degassing and CO2 and H2S air concentration and related hazard at Vulcano Island (Aeolian arc, Italy)’, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 207, 130-144.

Fulignati, P., Sbrana, A., Clocchiatti, R. and Luperini, W. (2006) 'Environmental impact of the acid fumarolic plume of a passively degassing volcano (Vulcano Island, Italy)', Environmental Geology, 49(8), 1139-1155.

Klose, C. D. (2007) 'Health risk analysis of volcanic SO2 hazard on Vulcano Island (Italy)', Natural Hazards, 43(3), 303-317.

Pareschi, M. T., Ranci, M., Valenza, M. & Graziani, G. (1999) 'The assessment of volcanic gas hazard by means of numerical models: an example from Vulcano Island (Sicily)', Geophysical Research Letters, 26(10), 1405-1408.


Amaral, A., Rodrigues, V., Oliveira, J., Pinto, C., Carneiro, V., Sanbento, R., Cunha, R. & Rodrigues, A. (2006) 'Chronic exposure to volcanic environments and cancer incidence in the Azores, Portugal', Science of the Total Environment, 367(1), 123-128.

Amaral, A. F. & Rodrigues, A. S. (2007) 'Chronic exposure to volcanic environments and chronic bronchitis incidence in the Azores, Portugal', Environmental Research, 103(3), 419-23.

Amaral, A. F. S., Arruda, M., Cabral, S. & Rodrigues, A. S. (2008) 'Essential and non-essential trace metals in scalp hair of men chronically exposed to volcanogenic metals in the Azores, Portugal', Environment International, 34(8), 1104-1108.

Baxter, P. J., Baubron, J. C. & Countinho, R. (1999) 'Health hazards and disaster potential of ground gas emissions at Furnas volcano, Sao Miguel, Azores', Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research,92(1-2), 95-106.

Camarinho, R., Garcia, P. V., & Rodrigues, A. S. (2013) ‘Chronic exposure to volcanogenic air pollution as cause of lung injury’, Environmental Pollution, 181, 24-30.

Ferreira, T., Gaspar, J. L., Viveiros, F., Marcos, M., Faria, C. & Sousa, F. (2005) 'Monitoring of fumarole discharge and CO2 soil degassing in the Azores: contribution to volcanic surveillance and public health risk assessment', Annals of Geophysics, 48(4-5), 787-796.

Viveiros, F., Cardellini, C., Ferreira, T., Caliro, S., Chiodini, G. & Silva, C. (2010) 'Soil CO2 emissions at Furnas volcano (São Miguel Island, Azores archipelago) - volcano monitoring perspectives, geomorphologic studies and land-use planning application', Journal of Geophysical Research, 115, B12208.

Viveiros, F., Ferreira, T., Silva, C. & Gaspar, J. L. (2009) 'Meteorological factors controlling soil gases and indoor CO2 concentration: A permanent risk in degassing areas', Science of the Total Environment, 407(4), 1362-1372.

Viveiros, F., Gaspar, J.L., Ferreira, T.,  Silva. C. (2016) 'Hazardous indoor CO2 concentrations in volcanic environments', Environmental Pollution, 214, 776-786.